3 Geopolitics of energy security

As described in Chapter 2, China and India are both characterized by high economic growth and big increases in energy consumption. Although both countries are trying hard to find appropriate energy alternatives, increase energy efficiency, and diversify energy resources, they are becoming increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas, and the unstable Middle East and Africa are set to remain their predominant sources of oil and gas. Thus high dependence on fossil fuels poses several security challenges, including a widening gap between supply and demand, the transportation of oil and gas on vulnerable sea routes, and energy-related CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly analyzes these three dimensions in the context ...

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