10    Chinese—English bilingualeducation in the PRC

Implications for language education forautochthonous ethnic minorities

Guangwei Hu

Introduction

One of the much discussed consequences of globalization is the intensified spread of English as a global language (Crystal, 2003; Rubdy, 2009), especially in what Kachru (1986) refers to as Expanding Circle countries, where English is studied as a foreign language (Guo & Beckett, 2007; McKay & Bokhorst-Heng, 2008). Because of the popular belief that English provides access to knowledge, development, power and well-being, various top-down and bottom-up initiatives have been staged at an increasing pace to expand English instruction and improve the effectiveness of such instruction in the school systems ...

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