STEP 6:LEARN HOW ITEMS AND FEEDBACK SCALES WERE DEVELOPED

Instruments that assess managerial competence or leadership effectiveness are dealing with complicated phenomena. These phenomena cannot be adequately represented by a single behavior or characteristic because they are comprised of many closely related behaviors and skills. To adequately measure these complex capacities, instruments must have scales that are made up of several items.

The process of instrument development typically begins with the writing of items that represent behaviors or characteristics believed to be related to effective management or leadership.

Items can come from a variety of places. Sometimes the author refers to a theory (leadership theory, theory of managerial ...

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