Chapter 4. Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part I

IPv4 routing requires the cooperation of hosts and routers. Hosts first create IPv4 packets and send those packets to some nearby router (the host’s default router, or default gateway). The router then makes a routing decision of where to forward the IPv4 packet next and sends the packet over the next physical link. Each router that receives the IPv4 packet repeats the process, until the packet finally arrives at the destination host.

This chapter focuses on how to troubleshoot problems with IPv4 routing. Specifically, this chapter focuses on packet forwarding (that is, the data plane of IPv4). For the most part, this chapter leaves most of the discussion of data link and physical layer problems ...

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