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Cisco IOS in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition by James Boney

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Chapter 6. Networking Technologies

In this chapter, we’ll cover some networking technologies that you are likely to encounter, such as frame relay, ATM, cable, DSL, and VoIP. ISDN also fits into this grouping but is covered separately in Chapter 12.

Frame Relay

In the past decade, Frame Relay has become a popular wide-area network (WAN) switching method. Building a WAN by creating virtual circuits inside a provider’s Frame Relay network has become a much more attractive option than ordering leased lines between the locations you want to connect. Instead of paying for all those leased lines, you just pay for access to the provider’s network. Of course, there is still a leased line to the provider, but it is typically fairly short—much shorter than a leased line between your end locations. It’s easy to order the bandwidth you need for each link; furthermore, Frame Relay allows you to reserve a guaranteed minimum bandwidth (called the “committed information rate” or CIR) but lets you use as much bandwidth as is available on the network. In fact, you don’t need the same speed circuits at all your sites. For example, your corporate headquarters might use a DS-3 (45-Mbps line), while your regional offices all have T1 lines.

At the physical level, a Frame Relay connection looks just like a serial interface—because it is. A standard leased line (typically a T1 line) connects your site to the Frame Relay provider. Although it’s more complex than a simple serial interface, the complexity ...

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