Using Reference Models

In the early days of networking, various manufacturers were using incompatible networking protocols and systems for identifying and locating computers on a network. The idea of locking customers into a system by making the system proprietary seemed like a good idea in the beginning. But it soon became apparent to the industry that if everyone got on the same page, everyone could sell more hardware and software.

What the industry needed was a vendor-neutral organization to bring order out of the chaos. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) became that organization.


The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) creates all sorts of standards, and they are not limited to computers and ...

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