The Ethernet protocol was developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) laboratory in 1972. The Ethernet specification, as adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), covers only the first 1 1/2 layers of the OSI model. These layers are the physical layer and the MAC portion of the Data Link layer. Although the Ethernet specification defines only the lowest portion of the model, it can have multiple protocol modules riding above it. Some of these protocols are TCP/IP, Novell IPX, AppleTalk, NetBIOS, SNA, and XNS.

The IEEE adopted the original Ethernet version with minor modification and labeled it 802.3. Ethernet protocol is based on the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect ...

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