177
12
Access Restrictions and Local
Authorities’ City Logistics
Regulation in Urban Areas
Hans J. Quak
Contents
12.1 Introduction 178
12.2 An Overview of Access Restrictions 182
12.2.1 Time Access Restrictions 183
12.2.2 Vehicle Restrictions 187
12.2.3 Low Emission Zones/ Environmental Zones (Engine
Restrictions) 188
12.2.4 Vehicle Load Factor Controls 189
12.2.5 Road Pricing/ Congestion Charging 191
12.2.6 Parking and Unloading Restrictions 192
12.3 Logistical Implications of Restrictions 193
12.4 Regulating and Restrictions as Part of an Urban Freight
Transport Solution 196
12.5 Concluding Remarks 197
References 198
CITY LOGISTICS: MAPPING THE FUTURE
178
12.1 INTRODUCTION
Urban freight operations are usually recognized for their unsustainable
impacts on the environment. Even though the modern urbanized civiliza-
tion requires an efcient urban freight transport system in order to sus-
tain both the demands for goods and services as well as to remove waste,
counteracting the negative impacts of the system takes most of the efforts
of local authorities. Urban freight operations have negative impacts on all
sustainability indicators in several ways:
People: consequences of accidents with large vehicles and vulner-
able road users, as in cities these groups share the infrastructure,
nuisance (noise), and the consequences of local emissions for
public health.
Prot: logistics inefciencies due to last- mile issues and local reg-
ulations, but also contributing to urban congestion.
Planet: adding to CO
2
emissions.
One of the difculties in city logistics is that many different actors with
different (and sometimes even conicting) interests are involved as well as
with a different geographical scope and viewpoints. This makes it a chal-
lenge to actually come up with sustainable solutions for all stakeholders.
Van Rooijen and Quak (2013, 505), for example, mention, “compared to
the other thematic clusters of CIVITAS, the urban freight logistics cluster
has not reached the results that was hoped for. A large part of the mea-
sures in this cluster is not continued after the project or not completely
implemented at all during the project. The main reason for that is that
for freight transport the participation of private companies is needed
because these measures take place in a competitive market.” This conclu-
sion highlights one of the problems in city logistics: even though local
authorities and residents are the most affected by the sustainability prob-
lems in cities (e.g., emissions and nuisance, both local and global), solu-
tions to improve sustainability often lie within the scope of inuence
and action of private companies (especially carriers). The most important
stakeholder groups and their interests, relationships, and objectives are
(see also Figure12.1):
Local authorities: their scope is local (i.e., the city or even a smaller
area). The main issues are air quality, trafc safety, city accessibil-
ity, and congestion.
Carriers: a very heterogeneous group—and with that a hetero-
geneous scope as well—containing private carriers and for-hire
LOCAL AUTHORITIES’ CITY LOGISTICS REGULATION IN URBAN AREAS
179
carriers, (small) local carriers as well as global express services.
Their interest is in organizing transport operations as efciently
as possible and, in doing so, carriers often consider local regula-
tions in various cities as a major barrier together with receiver
demands and typical city issues such as congestion and difcult
maneuverability in small streets (see also Quak, 2012).
Residents: their scope is very local (sometimes as narrow as their
own street); most often residents do not want nuisance (noise,
visual, vibration, and smell) from urban freight transport.
Shippers: quite often shippers do not consider themselves as hav-
ing an interest in urban freight transport. However, shippers are
often responsible for hiring (or actually operating in the case of
private carriers as part of a chain of stores) transport operations
and form, therefore, the stakeholder group that determines many
of the actual urban freight transport characteristics. Therefore,
shippers are a group that is necessary to involve in nding solu-
tions for the issues mentioned. The shippers’ scope is usually not
local but wider (regional, national, or international).
Receivers: their scope is local; these stakeholders are actually
the group responsible for urban freight transport operations by
ordering products in the rst place. Their interest is therefore the
Information ow and direction
Goods ow and direction
Local
authorities
Higher
government
CASE 1
Carrier
for
-
hire carrier
Receiver
small (medium)
sized business
Shipper
Local
authorities
Higher
government
CASE 2
Carrier
private carrier
Receiver
part of retail chain
Shipper
retailer
s
headquarters
Figure 12.1 Heterogeneity in relationships between stakeholders. A large retail
chain and a small sized business (Quak, 2008).

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