Basha and Anand 
prepared biodiesel emulsion (83% of JB, 15% of water, and 2% of surfactants (Span80 and Tween80)) by emulsification technique with the aid of a mechanical agitator. The prepared fuel is mixed with the alumina nanoparticles in the mass fractions of 25, 50, and 100
ppm with the help of an ultrasonicator. The whole investigation is carried out in a constant speed diesel engine in three phases using JB, JB emulsion fuel, and alumina nanoparticle–blended JB emulsion fuels. The experimental results revealed a substantial enhancement in the performance and a reduction in harmful emissions for the biodiesel emulsion fuels compared to those of neat biodiesel.