GENE INJECTION AND MANIPULATION USING CMOS-BASED TECHNOLOGIES
The aim of this chapter is to explore avenues by which CMOS technologies could play an important role in accelerating advances in genetic engineering. Direct gene manipulation in living organisms involves (1) understanding the general control parameters for a particular gene, (2) synthesizing a nucleic acid-based target that controllably manipulates specific gene expression to give desired results, and (3) injecting the synthetic target construct via various gene injection methods into living cells. The former two steps have been already extensively studied, and the fundamental basis of biological information processing is summarized in the next section. Additionally, CMOS technologies already have a major impact in understanding genetic circuits and other gene interactions via the development of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based gene arrays. The third step involving delivery of desired nucleic acid payloads into living cells and tissues is a significant problem since the cell membrane is a formidable barrier to circumvent. Various methods of gene injection that either take advantage of the inherent cell transport properties or alter the physical state of cell membrane have been developed to deliver these synthetic gene constructs. Techniques such as engineered viruses, electroporation, sonoporation, and other mechanical membrane perforations are currently being ...