Chapter 5

Frontiers of ΣΔ Modulators: Trends and Challenges

Since the introduction of the modulation technique, there has been a pleiad of ICs published; implemented using many diverse technology processes, architectural, and circuit techniques, which have targeted a huge number of applications that span from sensors and instrumentation to ultra-low power, biomedical applications, and broadband communications [1–3].

An in-depth understanding of the performance of state-of-the-art Ms, their trends, challenges, and circuits and systems solutions, constitutes a powerful and empirical tool for designers to select the optimum M architecture, circuit implementation, technology process, etc, for a given set of specifications and/or a particular application. With this objective in mind and following the practical approach considered throughout this book, this chapter gives an overview of reported cutting-edge M ICs fabricated in CMOS technologies. The main purpose of this overview is to make an exhaustive analysis of the evolution trends, design challenges, and reported solutions in order to ...

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