1Introduction

The first milling machine in the world was invented by Eli Whitney around two hundred years ago. It was capable of manual and partially automated milling. With increasing industrialization, milling machines became more powerful and precise, and the first mass-production machines came into use around 1900.

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Control systems capable of automatically executing complete programs appeared around the middle of the 20th Century. This meant that machine operators no longer had to painstakingly set up each step by hand, so manufacturing times and sources of production errors decreased rapidly as a result. The advent of modern computers and ...

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