To facilitate comparison and analysis, several criteria were used to guide the selection of the case studies included in this volume. First, all cases had to involve collaboration between governmental and nongovernmental actors. Even though interagency and interorganizational collaborations often take place and are important, to be included in the volume the cases could not be composed solely of governmental or nongovernmental actors. Second, the cases had to represent different degrees of explicit government control—leading, encouraging, or following—with two instances of each type of governmental role. Third, each case had to address an issue pertaining to natural resource management. Although numerous collaborative ...

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