Glenda Alvarado, Ph.D.*


Compared to other communication technologies, computers have gone through extremely rapid changes. From the 30-ton ENIAC to the 3-pound laptop, information processing in a couple of hours to instant responses after a verbal command, personal computing devices have gone from “business only” to “everyone has one” in a matter of 50 years. Modern societies can’t imagine life without some type of computer, with all access, all the time.


What’s a computer? That’s the opening phrase in several editions of the textbook Introducing computers: concepts, systems, and application (Blissmer, 1991) from the early 1990s. It’s asked again decades later in a commercial for Apple’s iPad Pro (Miller, ...

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