Cyber‐physical systems (CPS) are computer‐controlled physical systems that deploy computational – or cyber – elements to sense, control, and operate in a physical environment. Given the rapid strides made by technology advances in computation and communication, these systems are becoming smart and interconnected. Advances in computation have enabled the introduction of artificial intelligence into such systems – sometimes called intelligent cyber‐physical systems (Müller 2017) or simply intelligent physical systems (Koditschek et al. 2015) – that are not just able to sense, understand, and manipulate the physical environment around them, but can also learn and improve over time. Advances in communication have made distributed architectures of intelligent physical systems possible to the extent that individual autonomous systems can operate together in a collaborative fashion.
Modern society is expected to experience a transformational impact of intelligent CPS in a range of sectors. Compelling examples can be found in the utilities, transportation, and manufacturing sectors.
- In the utilities sector, safe and reliable power grids are CPS applications that exemplify smart energy, which enables the integration of renewable energy sources that may be intermittent, such as wind ...