It has been shown both experimentally and theoretically that the strain-mediated ME coupling in a magnetostrictive–piezoelectric layered composite or laminate is several orders of magnitude larger as compared to single-phase materials. The direct ME (DME) and converse ME (CME) effect in the laminate composites consisting of a piezoelectric layer (P-layer) and a magnetostrictive layer (M-layer) can be represented by the following schematics:
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