The ME effect in ME composite is generated as a product property of the magnetostrictive effect (magnetic/mechanical effect) in the magnetic phase and the piezoelectric effect (mechanical/electric effect) in the piezoelectric phase. As a result, this two-phase composite material can be represented as (Nan, Bichurin, Dong, Viehland, & Srinivasan, 2008)

$\frac{\partial P}{\partial H}={\alpha}_{\mathrm{ME}}={k}_{c}{e}^{m}e$

(6.27)

where

${e}^{m}=\frac{\partial S}{\partial H}\text{and}e=\frac{\partial P}{\partial S}$

(6.28)

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