Chapter 2

Linear Algebra for Beginners

A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers and the numbers in the array are called the entries in the matrix. A two-dimensional matrix with one dimension equal to 1 is sometimes called a row matrix (a matrix with only one row) or a column matrix (a matrix with only one column). A matrix with both dimensions equal to 1 is simply a single number which we can also call a scalar. It is conventional to denote matrices by boldface upper-case symbols and row or column vectors by lower-case symbols. So, for example, the matrix **A**, where:

is a 2 × 2 matrix with four entries. Since only the diagonal entries are non-zero we can state that **A** is a diagonal matrix (furthermore, a diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are all 1 is also called an identity matrix).

Two matrices are defined to be equal if they have the same size and their corresponding entries are equal. If **A** and **B** are matrices of the same size, then the sum **A** + **B** is the matrix obtained by adding the entries of **B** to the corresponding entries of **A**, and the difference **A** − **B** is the matrix obtained by subtracting the entries of **B** from the corresponding entries of **A**. Only matrices of the same size can be added or subtracted. As an example, if we defined matrix **B** by:

2.2

then we can write that:

2.3

and that:

2.4

If **A** is an *m* × *r* matrix and **B** is an *r* × *n* matrix, then ...

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