Chapter 43

Privacy-Enhancing Technologies1

Simone Fischer-Hbner,    Professor, Karlstad University, Karlstad/Sweden

Stefan Berthold,    Karlstad University

Privacy is considered a core value and is recognized either explicitly or implicitly as a fundamental human right by most constitutions of democratic societies. In Europe, the foundations for the right to privacy of individuals were embedded in the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 1950 (Art. 8) and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in 2009 (Art. 7 & 8). In 1980, the OECD recognized the importance of privacy protection with the publication of the OECD Privacy Guidelines [1], which served as the foundation for many national privacy laws.

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