Surveillance is nowadays used widely in transport and civil centers for monitoring traffic and people, and is increasingly being carried out by computers. The motivation is largely to locate instances of undesirable behavior—theft, loitering with intent, speeding, and so on. What is special about surveillance is the rate at which pictorial information is delivered, and the fact that many of the objects being monitored are in motion. To cope with this, there is considerable emphasis on identification and elimination of the background and effective tracking of moving objects. At the same time algorithms need to be fast in operation, though some help can be obtained with fast dedicated hardware systems.
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