Chapter 4. Causes and Effects

The causes and the effectsare not alwaysdistinguishable.

IN SECTION 4.1, WE CONSIDER the nature of causative factors associated with risks, including the roles of weak links and multiple simultaneously acting causes. In Section 4.2, we examine the distinctions and similarities between accidental and intentional causes.

4.1 Weak Links and Multiple Causes

A weak link in a system is a point at which a failure or an attack can render the system incapable of continuing to satisfy its requirements (for security, integrity, reliability, survivability, or whatever). As in a chain, in which loss of a single link destroys the entire chain, a weak link can represent the potential for a disaster triggered at a single point. ...

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