For *converting* the analog signal from the microphone into a digital signal, pulse-code modulation (PCM) is used. In this system the signal is periodically sampled and *each sample is translated into a binary number.* From Nyquist's sampling theorem *the frequency of the sampling should be at least twice as high as the highest frequency to be accounted for in the analog signal.* The number of bits per sample determines the *signal-to-noise ratio* in the subsequent reproduction.

In the *compact disc system* the analog system is sampled at a rate of 44.1 kHz, which is sufficient for the reproduction of the maximum frequency of 20 kHz. The signal is quantized by the method of uniform or linear quantization, the sampled amplitude ...

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