Linear integrated circuits are found in four main areas :
- Power amplifiers (audio applications with 1 watt or more of output power).
- High frequency amplifiers (r.f., video and wide band-dc to 75 MHz).
- Differential operational amplifiers (high input resistance and open-loop gain).
- Voltage regulators (for example, up to 0.6 A at 40 V, low output impedance of 20 mΩ)
The differential operational amplifier is the difference or differential amplifier, which is particularly suited to integrated circuit technology.
We will consider the IC here mainly as a “black-box” device, only occasionally referring to its schematic structure. However, basically, a small monolithic integrated circuit consists of a single chip of silicon, typically ...