Provisions of Companies
Act1956 Relevant to Fraud
Risk Management
Prospectus and Allotment, and Other Matters
Relating to Issue of Shares or Debentures
55 Dating of Prospectus.
55a Powers of Securities and Exchange Board of India.
56 Matters to be stated and reports to be set out in
57 Expert to be unconnected with formation or
management of company.
58 Expert’s consent to issue of prospectus containing
statement by him.
58a Deposits not to be invited without issuing an
58b Small depositors.
58c Default in acceptance or refund of deposits to be
59 Penalty and interpretation.
60 Registration of prospectus.
62 Civil liability for mis-statement in prospectus.
63 Criminal liability for mis-statements in prospectus
68 Penalty for fraudulently inducing persons to
invest money.
Provisions of Companies Act1956 | 145
77 Restrictions on purchase by company, or loans by
company for purchase, of its own or its holding
company’s shares.
Share Capital and Debentures
105 Penalty for concealing name of creditor.
Management and Administration
165 Statutory meeting and statutory report of company.
166 Annual general meeting.
167 Power of Central Government to call annual
general meeting.
168 Penalty for default in complying with section 166
or 167.
169 Calling of extraordinary general meeting on
170 Sections 171 to 186 to apply to meetings.
171 Length of notice for calling meeting.
172 Contents and manner of service of notice and
persons on whom it is to be served.
173 Explanatory statement to be annexed to notice.
174 Quorum for meeting.
175 Chairman of meeting.
176 Proxies.
177 Voting to be by show of hands in rst instance.
178 Chairman’s declaration of result of voting by
show of hands to be conclusive.
179 Demand for poll.
146 | Provisions of Companies Act1956
180 Time of taking poll.
181 Restriction on exercise of voting right of members
who have not paid calls, etc.
182 Restrictions on exercise of voting right in other
cases to be void.
183 Right of member to use his votes dierently.
184 Scrutineers at poll.
185 Manner of taking poll and result thereof.
186 Power of Tribunal to order meeting to be called.
187 Representation of corporations at meetings of
companies and of creditors.
187a Representation of the President and Governors
in meetings of companies of which they are
187b Exercise of voting rights in respect of shares held
in trust.
187c Declaration by persons not holding benecial
interest in any share.
187d Investigation of benecial ownership of shares in
certain cases.
188 Circulation of members’ resolutions.
189 Ordinary and special resolutions.
190 Resolutions requiring special notice.
191 Resolutions passed at adjourned meetings.
192 Registration of certain resolutions and agreements.
192a Passing of resolutions by postal ballot.
193 Minutes of proceedings of general meetings and
of Board and other meetings.
194 Minutes to be evidence.
195 Presumptions to be drawn where minutes duly
drawn and signed.
Provisions of Companies Act1956 | 147
196 Inspection of minute books of general meetings.
197 Publication of reports of proceedings of general
202 Undischarged insolvent not to manage companies.
203 Power to restrain fraudulent persons from man-
aging companies.
209 Books of account to be kept by company.
209a Inspection of books of account, etc of companies.
210 Annual accounts and balance sheet.
210a Constitution of National Advisory Committee
on Accounting Standards.
211 Form and contents of balance sheet and prot
and loss account.
212 Balance-sheet of holding company to include
certain particulars as to its subsidiaries.
213 Financial year of holding company and subsidiary.
214 Rights of holding company’s representatives and
215 Authentication of balance-sheet and prot and
loss account.
216 Prot and loss account to be annexed and auditors’
report to be attached to balance-sheet.
217 Board’s report.
218 Penalty for improper issue, circulation or publica-
tion of balance-sheet or prot and loss account.
219 Right of member to copies of balance-sheet and
auditors’ report.
220 Three copies of balance sheet, etc to be led with
221 Duty of ocer to make disclosure of payments,

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