The Roman Military
Purpose, focus, culture
The Roman military existed for 2,000 years and was arguably the greatest military machine in history. Its ability to learn, reconfigure, and reach a new state was critical to the longevity and superiority of Rome’s Republic and Empire.
Its army and navy underwent numerous transformations in configuration, structure, equipment, and tactics. In the end, the Roman military was more versatile than its enemies, dared more than its enemies, and helped Rome choose a destiny that echoes to this day. Let us consider two examples from the mid-Republic era.
The Manipular Army—Daring More
Up until the mid-Republic era, the Romans had used a battle formation they had inherited from the Etruscans—the phalanx formation. ...