11Conceptual and Practical Implications

“Why does evil exist?” is a classic question about the nature of the universe and humankind (Jonason, Icho, & Ireland, 2016). Despite considerable efforts to eliminate antisocial personality traits from the population through religion (e.g., by the threat of damnation), laws (e.g., by the threat of imprisonment), social movements (e.g., by encouraging self-esteem), and institutional sanctions (e.g., by the threat of being fired), these traits continue and, by all accounts, may have always been present. It may be impossible to eliminate them because they are present in everyone to some extent. All people may have the potential to be high or low in the dark triad traits, which are inherent in the human genotype. ...

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