CHAPTER 1. THE TENETS OF LEADERFUL PRACTICE
1. The processes in the model are based on what famed sociologist, Talcott Parsons, considered the four functional prerequisites of organizations. Although credited to Parsons, the prerequisites derived from his collaboration with Edward Shils and Robert Bales. Bales, in particular, observed how groups went through these phases as they coped with any material problem. Parsons then applied the framework to larger social institutions. See T. Parsons, R. F. Bales, and E. A. Shils, Working Papers in the Theory of Action (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1953); and L. H. Mayhew, ed., Talcott Parsons: On Institutions and Social Evolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), pp. 23-41.
2. Reported in ...