IntroductionThe Birth of Art

The purpose of this work is to discuss the importance of the transformations in innovation systems brought about by globalization. We understand this term as the existence of new macroeconomic solidarities. These have been problematized since the mid-1980s, with Kenichi Ohmae’s assessment of a tripolar world [OHM 85].

However, global macroeconomic solidarities have existed for a very long time. Thus, multiple responses have been offered to the question of when globalization began. The academic debates in economic history put forth a date of origin, either that of the complete coverage of the globe by maritime routes [FLY 04] or that of the start of economic integration throughout the 19th Century [BÉN 08]. Other specialists are interested in the relationships between anatomically modern humans and their environment, and they introduce a caesura that is major in their eyes: that of the birth of the arts [FLO 17b]. The presence of anatomically modern humans in Western Europe is attested by a fossil in a cave in Kent, which dates back to between 44 and 41 kyr (44,000–41,000 years before the present day). The first globalization is that of a terrestrial expanse that spreads anatomically modern humans across every imaginable environment, from Australia to the Arctic Circle. Then came maritime expansion, the Industrial Revolution and contemporary globalization: however, since the first terrestrial expansion, the question of innovation has been asked, ...

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