Mathematics is full of pseudorandomness—plenty enough to supply all would-be creators for all time.

——D. R. Hofstadter, *Gödel, Escher, Bach*

Anyone who considers arithmetical methods of producing random digits is, of course, in a state of sin.

——John von Neumann,

**Sequences of "random" numerical values** are used in many statistical procedures, in numerical mathematics, in physics, and also in number-theoretic applications to replace statistical observations or to automate the input of variable quantities. Random numbers are used:

to select random samples from a larger set,

in cryptography to generate keys and in running security protocols,

as initial values in procedures to generate prime numbers,

to test computer programs ...

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