vii
Contents
Preface .............................................................................................................. xiii
About the author ..............................................................................................xv
Chapter 1 Importance of trusting cultures ............................................... 1
1.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................1
1.2 Technology-driven organizations in the global marketplace ........... 2
1.3 Relationship between increased productivity and trusting
cultures ......................................................................................................4
Section I: Literature review and the empirical study
Chapter 2 Literature review ......................................................................... 9
2.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................9
2.2 Organizational culture ...........................................................................9
2.3 Dening organizational culture .......................................................... 10
2.4 Burns and Stalker’s organic and mechanistic management
systems .................................................................................................... 13
2.5 Likert System IV management process .............................................. 13
2.6 Connection between mechanistic and organic cultures and
Likert management systems ................................................................ 14
2.7 Summary of culture literature review ................................................ 17
2.8 Organizational trust .............................................................................. 17
2.9 Dening organizational trust .............................................................. 18
2.10 Principal trust attributes....................................................................... 18
2.11 Summary of trust literature review ....................................................22
Section II: Result of empirical studies
Chapter 3 Research statement and methodology ..................................25
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................25
3.2 Research question and objective ......................................................... 25
viii Contents
3.3 Hypotheses ............................................................................................. 25
3.4 Research signicance and contribution to the body
of knowledge ....................................................................................26
3.5 Contribution to the disciplines of management and leadership .... 27
3.6 Survey instrument selection ................................................................ 28
3.6.1 Measuring organizational culture ........................................ 28
3.6.2 Measuring organizational trust ............................................ 30
3.7 Demographic questionnaire ................................................................ 32
3.8 Targeted population .............................................................................. 33
3.9 Data collection process .........................................................................33
Chapter 4 Pilot study ...................................................................................35
4.1 Conducting the pilot study ..................................................................35
4.1.1 Organization A ........................................................................ 35
4.1.2 Organization B ......................................................................... 35
4.1.3 Organization C ......................................................................... 35
4.2 Pilot results ............................................................................................. 36
4.3 Summary of pilot study ........................................................................39
4.4 Lesson learned ....................................................................................... 39
Chapter 5 Full study ....................................................................................41
5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 41
5.2 Description of data analysis methods ................................................ 41
5.3 Data characteristics ............................................................................... 41
5.4 Participating organizations .................................................................. 43
5.4.1 Organization D ........................................................................44
5.4.2 Organization E ......................................................................... 44
5.4.3 Organization F .........................................................................44
5.4.4 Organization G ........................................................................ 45
5.4.5 Organization H ........................................................................ 45
5.4.6 Organization I .......................................................................... 45
5.4.7 Organization J .......................................................................... 45
5.4.8 Organization K ......................................................................... 46
5.4.9 Organization L ......................................................................... 46
5.4.10 Organization M ........................................................................ 46
5.5 Data and analysis of results ................................................................. 46
5.6 Normality and survey reliability analysis ......................................... 47
5.7 Mean analysis ......................................................................................... 47
5.8 Correlation analysis ...............................................................................53
5.9 Hypothesis testing—trust attributes .................................................. 53
5.10 Analysis by organization ......................................................................54
5.11 Summary of organizational analyses ................................................. 55
5.12 Trust in technology-driven organizations ......................................... 56
5.13 Gender analysis ...................................................................................... 57
ixContents
5.14 Ethnic group analysis ........................................................................... 58
5.15 Age analysis ............................................................................................ 61
5.16 Job tenure analysis ................................................................................. 62
5.17 Industry analysis ................................................................................... 62
5.18 Job status/position analysis .................................................................63
5.19 Conclusion ..............................................................................................64
Chapter 6 Technology-driven organization cultures ........................... 67
6.1 Characteristics of technology-driven organization cultures .......... 67
6.2 Redening cultures for technology-driven organizations .............. 68
6.3 Culture—the foundation of trust ........................................................ 70
6.4 Summary ................................................................................................ 70
Chapter 7 Study recommendations and conclusions ........................... 73
7.1 Recommendations ................................................................................. 73
7.2 Conclusion .............................................................................................. 74
7.3 Limitation of the study .........................................................................75
7.4 Areas for future study........................................................................... 75
Section III: Practitioner’s guide
Chapter 8 Tactics for building and maintaining trust ......................... 81
8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 81
8.2 Organizational diversity....................................................................... 82
8.2.1 Gender intelligence .................................................................83
8.2.2 Ethnicity and trust...................................................................85
8.3 Organizational alignment and policies .............................................. 86
8.4 Dealing with perceptions ..................................................................... 86
8.5 Role of trust attributes in building a culture of trust ....................... 87
8.5.1 Openness and honesty ............................................................ 88
8.5.2 Competence .............................................................................. 89
8.5.3 Concern for employees ........................................................... 90
8.5.4 Identication .............................................................................90
8.5.5 Reliability .................................................................................. 91
8.5.6 Relationship .............................................................................. 91
8.6 Selection and promotion of new managers ....................................... 92
8.6.1 Leadership training ................................................................. 93
8.7 Building trusting cultures .................................................................... 94
8.8 Perils of mistrust .................................................................................... 95
8.9 Behaviors that facilitate trust ............................................................... 95
8.10 Interpersonal communication ............................................................. 96
8.11 Soft side of management....................................................................... 97
8.12 Leader’s role ............................................................................................97
x Contents
8.12.1 Performance appraisals .......................................................... 99
8.12.2 Reward and recognition ....................................................... 100
8.12.3 Succession planning .............................................................. 100
8.12.4 Employee engagement .......................................................... 101
8.13 Leadership styles ................................................................................. 101
8.13.1 Situational leadership ........................................................... 102
8.13.2 Servant leadership ................................................................. 102
8.13.3 The micro leader .................................................................... 103
Chapter 9 Managers toolkit .................................................................... 105
9.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 105
9.2 Guidelines for assessing organizational culture and trust ........... 105
9.2.1 Document review .................................................................. 106
9.2.2 Selecting a survey instrument ............................................. 106
9.2.3 Development of a demographic survey ............................. 107
9.2.4 Developing a survey instrument ......................................... 107
9.2.5 Conducting focus group discussions ................................. 108
9.2.6 Selecting a facilitator ............................................................. 108
9.2.7 Conducting interviews ......................................................... 109
9.2.8 Analyzing and reporting the data ...................................... 109
9.2.9 Culture improvement plan ................................................... 109
9.3 Case study 1: Dysfunctional management .......................................110
9.4 Case study 2: The absent manager .....................................................111
9.5 Case study 3: The art and importance of relationships ..................113
9.6 Case study 4: Diversity matters ..........................................................114
9.7 Case study 5: Management accountability .......................................115
9.8 Individual Trust Questionnaire ..........................................................116
9.8.1 Survey completion ..................................................................116
9.8.2 Survey analysis .......................................................................116
9.8.3 Individual Trust Questionnaire guide ................................117
9.8.4 Individual Trust Questionnaire ............................................118
9.9 Organization Trust Questionnaire .....................................................119
9.9.1 Survey completion instructions ...........................................119
9.9.2 Survey analysis .......................................................................119
9.9.3 Organization Trust Questionnaire guide .......................... 120
9.9.4 Organization Trust Questionnaire ...................................... 121
9.10 Employee Engagement Questionnaire ............................................. 122
9.10.1 Survey completion ................................................................. 122
9.10.2 Survey analysis ...................................................................... 122
9.10.3 Employee Engagement Questionnaire ............................... 123
9.11 Management Trust Questionnaire .................................................... 124
9.11.1 Survey completion ................................................................. 124
9.11.2 Survey analysis ...................................................................... 124
9.11.3 Management Trust Questionnaire ...................................... 125

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