Introduction

 

 

 

 

The year 2007 was marked by the cyber-attacks against Estonia, and the wellpublicized waves of cyber-attacks against various State institutions across the world, often attributed to China and Russia. Following this, 2010 was marked by the Stuxnet worm attack on industrial infrastructures. Since then, a number of nations, led by the United States (US), have entered a new era in terms of their policies and strategies for security and national defense, integrating the cybernetic dimension. This can be seen in the publication of White Papers, national cyber-security strategies, military doctrines, the reorganization of players in cyber-security and the creation of cyber-defense units, both civilian and military (national cyber-security agencies, cyber-commands, etc.).

For nearly two decades prior to this turning point, theories and concepts, mainly American in origin, fueled debates about the informatization of armies, revolution in military affairs and the new techno-centric way of waging war. The first Gulf War was presented as the first war in this era of digital information. Since then, the thoughts and strategies developed by the US Department of Defense have been observed, analyzed, copied and adapted by various nations. Russia and above all China have made their presence felt as new major actors in cyber-conflict.

Following years of musings, costly programs and successive plans to improve cyber-security, the US came to a bitter realization: the security ...

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