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Cyber-Physical Systems

Book Description

Learn the State of the Art in Embedded Systems and Embrace the Internet of Things

The next generation of mission-critical and embedded systems will be “cyber physical”: They will demand the precisely synchronized and seamless integration of complex sets of computational algorithms and physical components. Cyber-Physical Systems is the definitive guide to building cyber-physical systems (CPS) for a wide spectrum of engineering and computing applications.

Three pioneering experts have brought together the field’s most significant work in one volume that will be indispensable for all practitioners, researchers, and advanced students. This guide addresses CPS from multiple perspectives, drawing on extensive contributions from leading researchers.

The authors and contributors review key CPS challenges and innovations in multiple application domains. Next, they describe the technical foundations underlying modern CPS solutions—both what we know and what we still need to learn. Throughout, the authors offer guiding principles for every facet of CPS development, from design and analysis to planning future innovations.

Comprehensive coverage includes

  • Understanding CPS drivers, challenges, foundations, and emerging directions

  • Building life-critical, context-aware, networked systems of medical devices

  • Creating energy grid systems that reduce costs and fully integrate renewable energy sources

  • Modeling complex interactions across cyber and physical domains

  • Synthesizing algorithms to enforce CPS control

  • Addressing space, time, energy, and reliability issues in CPS sensor networks

  • Applying advanced approaches to real-time scheduling

  • Securing CPS: preventing “man-in-the-middle” and other attacks

  • Ensuring logical correctness and simplifying verification

  • Enforcing synchronized communication between distributed agents

  • Using model-integration languages to define formal semantics for CPS models


  • Register your product at informit.com/register for convenient access to downloads, updates, and corrections as they become available.

    Table of Contents

    1. About This E-Book
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Dedication Page
    5. Contents
    6. Introduction
      1. Emergence of CPS
      2. CPS Drivers
        1. Applications
        2. Theoretical Foundations
      3. Target Audience
    7. Part I: Cyber-Physical System Application Domains
      1. Chapter 1. Medical Cyber-Physical Systems
        1. 1.1 Introduction and Motivation
        2. 1.2 System Description and Operational Scenarios
          1. 1.2.1 Virtual Medical Devices
          2. 1.2.2 Clinical Scenarios
        3. 1.3 Key Design Drivers and Quality Attributes
          1. 1.3.1 Trends
          2. 1.3.2 Quality Attributes and Challenges of the MCPS Domain
          3. 1.3.3 High-Confidence Development of MCPS
          4. 1.3.4 On-Demand Medical Devices and Assured Safety
          5. 1.3.5 Smart Alarms and Clinical Decision Support Systems
          6. 1.3.6 Closed-Loop System
          7. 1.3.7 Assurance Cases
        4. 1.4 Practitioners’ Implications
          1. 1.4.1 MCPS Developer Perspective
          2. 1.4.2 MCPS Administrator Perspective
          3. 1.4.3 MCPS User Perspective
          4. 1.4.4 Patient Perspective
          5. 1.4.5 MCPS Regulatory Perspective
        5. 1.5 Summary and Open Challenges
        6. References
      2. Chapter 2. Energy Cyber-Physical Systems
        1. 2.1 Introduction and Motivation
        2. 2.2 System Description and Operational Scenarios
        3. 2.3 Key Design Drivers and Quality Attributes
          1. 2.3.1 Key Systems Principles
          2. 2.3.2 Architecture 1 Performance Objectives
          3. 2.3.3 A Possible Way Forward
        4. 2.4 Cyber Paradigm for Sustainable SEES
          1. 2.4.1 Physics-Based Composition of CPS for an SEES
          2. 2.4.2 DyMonDS-Based Standards for CPS of an SEES
          3. 2.4.3 Interaction Variable–Based Automated Modeling and Control
        5. 2.5 Practitioners’ Implications
          1. 2.5.1 IT-Enabled Evolution of Performance Objectives
          2. 2.5.2 Distributed Optimization
        6. 2.6 Summary and Open Challenges
        7. References
      3. Chapter 3. Cyber-Physical Systems Built on Wireless Sensor Networks
        1. 3.1 Introduction and Motivation
        2. 3.2 System Description and Operational Scenarios
          1. 3.2.1 Medium Access Control
          2. 3.2.2 Routing
          3. 3.2.3 Node Localization
          4. 3.2.4 Clock Synchronization
          5. 3.2.5 Power Management
        3. 3.3 Key Design Drivers and Quality Attributes
          1. 3.3.1 Physically Aware
          2. 3.3.2 Real-Time Aware
          3. 3.3.3 Runtime Validation Aware
          4. 3.3.4 Security Aware
        4. 3.4 Practitioners’ Implications
        5. 3.5 Summary and Open Challenges
        6. References
    8. Part II: Foundations
      1. Chapter 4. Symbolic Synthesis for Cyber-Physical Systems
        1. 4.1 Introduction and Motivation
        2. 4.2 Basic Techniques
          1. 4.2.1 Preliminaries
          2. 4.2.2 Problem Definition
          3. 4.2.2.2 Linear Temporal Logic
          4. 4.2.3 Solving the Synthesis Problem
          5. 4.2.4 Construction of Symbolic Models
          6. 4.2.4.1 Stability Assumptions
        3. 4.3 Advanced Techniques
          1. 4.3.1 Construction of Symbolic Models
          2. 4.3.2 Continuous-Time Controllers
          3. 4.3.3 Software Tools
        4. 4.4 Summary and Open Challenges
        5. References
      2. Chapter 5. Software and Platform Issues in Feedback Control Systems
        1. 5.1 Introduction and Motivation
        2. 5.2 Basic Techniques
          1. 5.2.1 Controller Timing
          2. 5.2.2 Control Design for Resource Efficiency
        3. 5.3 Advanced Techniques
          1. 5.3.1 Reducing the Computation Time
          2. 5.3.2 Less Frequent Sampling
          3. 5.3.3 Event-Based Control
          4. 5.3.4 Controller Software Structures
          5. 5.3.5 Sharing of Computing Resources
          6. 5.3.6 Analysis and Simulation of Feedback Control Systems
        4. 5.4 Summary and Open Challenges
        5. References
      3. Chapter 6. Logical Correctness for Hybrid Systems
        1. 6.1 Introduction and Motivation
        2. 6.2 Basic Techniques
          1. 6.2.1 Discrete Verification
        3. 6.3 Advanced Techniques
          1. 6.3.1 Real-Time Verification
          2. 6.3.2 Hybrid Verification
        4. 6.4 Summary and Open Challenges
        5. References
      4. Chapter 7. Security of Cyber-Physical Systems
        1. 7.1 Introduction and Motivation
        2. 7.2 Basic Techniques
          1. 7.2.1 Cyber Security Requirements
          2. 7.2.2 Attack Model
          3. 7.2.3 Countermeasures
        3. 7.3 Advanced Techniques
          1. 7.3.1 System Theoretic Approaches
        4. 7.4 Summary and Open Challenges
        5. References
      5. Chapter 8. Synchronization in Distributed Cyber-Physical Systems
        1. 8.1 Introduction and Motivation
          1. 8.1.1 Challenges in Cyber-Physical Systems
          2. 8.1.2 A Complexity-Reducing Technique for Synchronization
        2. 8.2 Basic Techniques
          1. 8.2.1 Formal Software Engineering
          2. 8.2.2 Distributed Consensus Algorithms
          3. 8.2.3 Synchronous Lockstep Executions
          4. 8.2.4 Time-Triggered Architecture
          5. 8.2.5 Related Technology
        3. 8.3 Advanced Techniques
          1. 8.3.1 Physically Asynchronous, Logically Synchronous Systems
        4. 8.4 Summary and Open Challenges
        5. References
      6. Chapter 9. Real-Time Scheduling for Cyber-Physical Systems
        1. 9.1 Introduction and Motivation
        2. 9.2 Basic Techniques
          1. 9.2.1 Scheduling with Fixed Timing Parameters
          2. 9.2.2 Memory Effects
        3. 9.3 Advanced Techniques
          1. 9.3.1 Multiprocessor/Multicore Scheduling
          2. 9.3.2 Accommodating Variability and Uncertainty
          3. 9.3.3 Managing Other Resources
          4. 9.3.4 Rhythmic Tasks Scheduling
        4. 9.4 Summary and Open Challenges
        5. References
      7. Chapter 10. Model Integration in Cyber-Physical Systems
        1. 10.1 Introduction and Motivation
        2. 10.2 Basic Techniques
          1. 10.2.1 Causality
          2. 10.2.2 Semantic Domains for Time
          3. 10.2.3 Interaction Models for Computational Processes
          4. 10.2.4 Semantics of CPS DSMLs
        3. 10.3 Advanced Techniques
          1. 10.3.1 ForSpec
          2. 10.3.2 The Syntax of CyPhyML
          3. 10.3.3 Formalization of Semantics
          4. 10.3.4 Formalization of Language Integration
        4. 10.4 Summary and Open Challenges
        5. References
    9. About the Authors
    10. About the Contributing Authors
    11. Index
    12. Code Snippets