If you spend more on coffee than on IT security, you will be hacked. What’s more, you deserve to be hacked.

Richard Clarke, author and former Special Advisor for Cyberspace to the US President

In this chapter, we will examine the fundamentals of data and information, since these lie at the very heart of cyber security. Although the two are frequently used interchangeably, it is important to understand the essential difference between the two. We shall also consider the wider context of cyber security, and provide an overview of the remainder of the book.


Anyone born after the late 1980s will have little or no concept of life before mobile phones and the internet. They have grown up accustomed to searching the world-wide ...

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