An illustrative and fairly common statistical hypothesis test is the one sample t-test. You use it when you have one sample and you want to test whether that sample likely came from a population by comparing the mean against the known population mean. For this test to work, you have to know the population mean.
In this example, we'll be using R's built-in precip dataset that contains precipitation data from 70 US cities, using the code given below:
> head(precip) Mobile Juneau Phoenix Little Rock Los Angeles 67.0 54.7 7.0 48.5 14.0 Sacramento 17.2
Don't be fooled by the fact that there are city names in there—this is a regular old vector—it's just that the elements are labeled. We can directly take the mean ...