BIRCH, which stands for Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies, was developed in 1996 by Tian Zhang, Raghu Ramakrishnan, and Miron Livny.^{1} BIRCH is especially appropriate for very large data sets, or for streaming data, because of its ability to find a good clustering solution with only a single scan of the data. Optionally, the algorithm can make further scans through the data to improve the clustering quality. BIRCH handles large data sets with a time complexity and space efficiency that is superior to other algorithms, according to the authors.

The BIRCH clustering algorithm consists of two main phases or steps,^{2} as shown here.

BIRCH is sometimes referred to as Two-Step Clustering, because of the two phases shown here. We now consider what constitutes each of these phases.

21.2 Cluster Features

BIRCH clustering achieves its high efficiency by clever use of a small set of summary statistics to represent a larger set of data points. For clustering purposes, these summary statistics constitute a CF, and represent a sufficient substitute for the actual ...

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