10.9 Bibliographic Notes

Clustering has been extensively studied for over 40 years and across many disciplines due to its broad applications. Most books on pattern classification and machine learning contain chapters on cluster analysis or unsupervised learning. Several textbooks are dedicated to the methods of cluster analysis, including Hartigan [Har75]; Jain and Dubes [JD88]; Kaufman and Rousseeuw [KR90]; and Arabie, Hubert, and De Sorte [AHS96]. There are also many survey articles on different aspects of clustering methods. Recent ones include Jain, Murty, and Flynn [JMF99]; Parsons, Haque, and Liu [PHL04]; and Jain [Jai10].

For partitioning methods, the k-means algorithm was first introduced by Lloyd [Llo57], and then by MacQueen [Mac67] ...

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