2.7 Overview of Data Models

A data model provides a description of the database structure, including the data, the relationships, constraints, and sometimes data semantics or meanings and operations that can be performed. It uses a collection of tools, often including a type of diagram and specialized vocabulary for describing the structure of the database. There is much disagreement over what constitutes a data model, and that is reflected in the dozens of proposed models and methodologies found in the literature.

2.7.1 The Entity-Relationship (ER) Model

The entity-relationship (ER) model is an example of a semantic model. Semantic models are used to describe the conceptual level of data, and are independent of the logical, internal, and physical ...

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