2. J. R. Ferrari, J. J. Johnson, and W. C. McCown, Procrastination and
Task Avoidance: Theory, Research, and Treatment (New York: Plenum,
1995), p. 220.
3. See, for instance, G. Beswick, E. D. Rothblum, and L. Mann,
“Psychological Antecedents of Student Procrastination,” Australian
Psychologist (July 1988), pp. 207–217; J. R. Ferrari and J. F. Dovidio,
“Examining Behavioral Processes in Indecision: Decisional
Procrastination and Decision-Making Style,” Journal of Research in
Personality (March 2000), pp. 127–137; and C. J. Anderson, “The
Psychology of Doing Nothing: Forms of Decision Avoidance Result
from Reason and Emotion,” Psychological Bulletin (January 2003), pp.
4. See I. L. Janis and L. Mann, Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis
of Conflict, Choice, and Commitment (New York: Free Press, 1977);
and A. Tversky and E. Shafir, “Choice Under Conflict: The Dynamics
of Deferred Decision,” Psychological Science (November 1992), pp.
5. A. Tversky and E. Shafir, “Choice Under Conflict,” p. 358
6. Ibid.
7. See O. E. Tykocinski, T. S. Pittman, and E. E. Tuttle, “Inaction Inertia:
Foregoing Future Benefits as a Result of an Initial Failure to Act,”
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (May 1995), p. 794.
8. N. Milgram and R. Tenne, “Personality Correlates of Decisional and
Task Avoidant Procrastination,” p. 142.
9. D. Ariely and K. Wertenbroch, “Procrastination, Deadlines, and
Performance: Self-Control by Precommitment,” Psychological Science
(May 2002), pp. 219–24.

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