Chapter 2

Characterization Methods of Lattice Defects


The lattice defects in nanomaterials can be characterized experimentally using different direct and indirect methods. In the direct methods, such as transmission or scanning electron microscopy (TEM or SEM), the lattice defects are visualized directly on images. The evaluation of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) images provides the density and misorientation distribution of grain boundaries, while high resolution TEM may yield the density and Burgers vector of dislocations. In the indirect methods, such as X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), electrical resistometry (ER) or positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), first only a fingerprint of the defect structure—a data series—is ...

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