v
Contents
Preface ......................................................................................................................ix
About the Author ..................................................................................................xv
Section I Introduction
1. Game-Changing Technologies ....................................................................3
Game- Changing Inventions ...........................................................................4
The Internet and the World Wide Web .........................................................7
Applications and Size of the Internet and the Web ....................................9
An Emerging Game- Changing Technology .............................................. 11
Bridging the Cyber and Physical Worlds ...................................................13
Digital Enhancement of Physical Objects ..................................................13
The Bridge ....................................................................................................... 14
The Core .......................................................................................................... 15
The Edge ..........................................................................................................17
Summary ......................................................................................................... 17
Section II Wireless Bridge
Overview ......................................................................................................... 19
2. RFID Technology and Embedded Intelligence ...................................... 21
Anatomy of an RFID Transponder ..............................................................23
Electronic Product Code ...............................................................................24
Electromagnetic Coupling ............................................................................ 25
Types of RFID Transponders .......................................................................26
Interference and Collision ............................................................................27
Sensor Tags .....................................................................................................29
Translation of RFID Data .............................................................................. 29
Complex Events ..............................................................................................30
Processing RFID Data in Real Time ............................................................32
Smart Objects..................................................................................................32
Smart Networks .............................................................................................34
Applications ....................................................................................................35
Enhanced Visibility of Objects .....................................................................36
Rapid Detection of Objects ........................................................................... 38
Challenges in Healthcare Delivery .............................................................40
vi Contents
RFID- Enabled Healthcare Delivery ............................................................42
Economics and Trends ..................................................................................44
Summary .........................................................................................................45
Section III Cyber Infrastructures
Overview .........................................................................................................47
3. Internet ...........................................................................................................49
A Simple Analogy ..........................................................................................49
Architecture of the Internet ..........................................................................50
IP Address .......................................................................................................51
Static and Dynamic IP Addresses ............................................................... 52
Network Address Translation (NAT) Table ...............................................52
Domain Name Service ..................................................................................53
Packet Switching ............................................................................................ 55
Open Systems Interconnection Model ........................................................56
Structure of a Data Packet ............................................................................58
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) .........................................................59
Routers .............................................................................................................63
Who Pays for the Internet? ...........................................................................63
Governance ..................................................................................................... 64
History of the Internet ...................................................................................65
Summary .........................................................................................................70
4. World Wide Web ...........................................................................................71
Architecture of the World Wide Web .........................................................71
Ports and Sockets ........................................................................................... 73
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) ..........................................................73
Resource ..........................................................................................................75
Browser ............................................................................................................ 76
Web Server ......................................................................................................77
Search Engine ................................................................................................. 77
Governance ..................................................................................................... 77
History of the Web .........................................................................................78
Design Criteria ...............................................................................................79
Summary .........................................................................................................80
5. The Mobile Internet and the Mobile Web ...............................................81
Terminology....................................................................................................83
Wireless Communication Protocols ............................................................ 83
WPAN Protocols ............................................................................................84
WLAN Protocols ............................................................................................ 85
WWAN Protocols ...........................................................................................86
viiContents
IP Masquerading ............................................................................................86
Mobile IP Address .........................................................................................88
Mobile Ad Hoc Network ...............................................................................89
Mobile Web ..................................................................................................... 91
Summary .........................................................................................................93
6. Internet of Things ........................................................................................95
Objective of Internet of Things .................................................................... 96
Overview of the State of the Art ..................................................................97
EPCglobal Network .......................................................................................98
Ubiquitous ID Network ................................................................................99
IPSO Alliance ...............................................................................................100
Monitoring the Earth and Its Atmosphere ............................................... 101
National Initiatives ...................................................................................... 102
Enabling Platforms ...................................................................................... 103
Selected Applications .................................................................................. 105
Standards for the Internet of Things ......................................................... 110
Summary ....................................................................................................... 110
Section IV Internet 2.0 (I-2)
Overview ....................................................................................................... 111
7. Evolution of Global Infrastructures ....................................................... 115
Evolution of the Internet ............................................................................. 118
Review of Internet 2.0 ..................................................................................123
Summary .......................................................................................................125
8. Design Lessons from the Internet and the Web ...................................127
The Internet and the Web: Design Principles .......................................... 127
Software Architecture Styles .....................................................................135
REpresentational State Transfer (REST) ...................................................139
Summary ....................................................................................................... 145
9. Services and Web Services ....................................................................... 147
Services .......................................................................................................... 148
Web Services ................................................................................................. 151
Anatomy of a Web Service.......................................................................... 152
Data Markup Language and Coupling .....................................................154
Description of Web Services ....................................................................... 157
Discovery of Web Services ......................................................................... 162
Invocation of Web Services ......................................................................... 163
Summary ....................................................................................................... 164
viii Contents
10. Architectural Imperatives for I-2 .............................................................165
Complex Systems and Resolution Scale ................................................... 166
Web- Enabled Services ................................................................................. 167
Service Agents .............................................................................................. 171
Resolution Scale for I-2 ................................................................................ 172
Service Transport Protocol ......................................................................... 174
What Is I-2? ...................................................................................................175
The Internet, Web, and I-2 ........................................................................... 178
Umbrella Constructs and Architectural Simplicity ................................ 179
Anatomy of a Service Agent .......................................................................180
Service Transport Protocol: Service Description ..................................... 181
Service Transport Protocol: Service Discovery........................................ 182
Service Transport Protocol: Service Invocation .......................................184
Closing the Loop .......................................................................................... 186
Summary ....................................................................................................... 187
11. Building a Prototype for I-2...................................................................... 189
Key Imperatives for the Prototype ............................................................ 189
A Blueprint for a Prototype ........................................................................ 193
Description of the Blueprint ....................................................................... 195
Network Topology in GeoNets .................................................................. 198
Node Addresses in GeoNets ...................................................................... 201
Proactive, Reactive, and Hybrid Routing Protocols ................................202
Summary .......................................................................................................204
12. The Road Ahead ..........................................................................................205
Incubation Environment .............................................................................205
Prototype .......................................................................................................205
Architecture ..................................................................................................206
Stewardship .................................................................................................. 206
Crowdsourcing the Evolution .................................................................... 207
Epilogue ........................................................................................................207
References ........................................................................................................... 211

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