This chapter examines the eco-costs/value ratio (EVR) concept and a tool based on life cycle analysis (LCA) from production, operating and end-of-life phases to evaluate the ecological impact of alternative design interventions. Following this introduction, a brief overview of the Dutch housing market heavily influenced by the subprime and Euro crisis and the role of land use in the development of tall buildings in the Netherlands is provided. The EVR concept is then discussed. Based on practical experience in several redevelopment and renovation projects, the applicability of the eco-cost model is tested in a complex of approximately 200 apartments. Three cases of tall buildings are also measured according to the EVR system and tested against four environmental ranking methods. The need for embedding EVR in other sustainable ranking methods is also discussed. The chapter concludes with the major challenges to overcome in the EVR method such as lack of standardisation and practical data to make the eco-cost model fully operational.
6.2 Overview of the Dutch housing market and land use planning
The financial (subprime) crisis of 2007–9, pinpointed by Lehman's bankruptcy, and the Euro crisis had a severe impact on Dutch real estate. It is probably not the worst situation in Europe, but after a rather comfortable period of real estate development, followed by real boom in cities ...