Chapter 9
9.1 Introduction
The Q factor of the LC-tank-based resonator has performance degradation at
60100 GHz. EM-wave-based oscillators have been studied to improve the Q
factor. The commonly deployed standing-wave-based os cillator (SWO) in [79,
238, 239] increases the Q of λ/4 coplanar stripline (CPS) resonators by forming
an open-circuit load when the incident and reflected EM waves perfectly move
in phase with each other. The primary limitations of this approach are twofold.
Firstly, the open circuit condition is hard to achieve due to lo ss in the λ/4 CPS
line; and secondly, the dimension is still large w he n implementing λ/4 CPS
lines on chip. Placing additional floating metal shielding to form slow-wave
lines may alleviate the aforementioned problems. Alter natively, metamaterial-
based designs have been explored re cently w ithin the microwave community
[240, 54, 241, 78]. A number of works are proposed recently for the design of a
transmission line (T-line) loaded high-Q metamaterial resonato r at the printed
circuit board (PCB) scale. Split-ring reso nator (SRR)-based or complementary
split-ring res onator(CSRR)-based os cillator designs are explored at 5.55.8
GHz [79, 80]. As the node becomes advanced, re cently, a single-ended T-line
loaded with SRRs (STL-SRRs) was studied in [84]. The SRR-based open-loop
multiple split-ring resonator s tructure was studied for a 24-GHz oscillator in
a 130 -nm CMOS process [79, 80]. No in-depth works are, however, performed
on how to design a high-Q and low-loss metamaterial resonator in advanced
node. For ex ample, it is unknown to design differential oscillators or voltage-
controlled oscilla tors (VCOs) with use of a metamaterial resonator at 601 00
GHz in the 65-nm CMOS process.
To demonstrate the high-Q performance of the proposed metamaterial
resonator at mm-wave region and its improvement in phase noise, two MMIC

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