261
16
Organising People for Design
Introduction
The design team organisation presented in this chapter is an updated version
of a model published by McCallion and Britton (1991). It is applicable to all
design teams. The original study distilled the essential features for successful
team performance by studying different kinds of teams in industry: quality
circles, chief programmer teams, egoless programming teams, design teams,
value-added management teams and planning teams. The updated version
takes into account Aspelunds (2006) sub-activities of design (Chapter 3), by
considering how they should be delegated to different roles.
The concept map is shown in Figure16.1. The chapter describes the differ-
ent roles in effective design teams, how design teams are linked vertically
and horizontally, how they are linked into the organisational structure of a
manufacturing company, and how they are managed.
The Design Team
A design team is dened by eight roles: chief designer, chief co-designer,
designer, team leader, client, inventor, critic and librarian.
Chief Designer
The chief designer is responsible for client communication and management,
concept development and integrity, conguration management, the quality
of the design and design documentation, ensuring the design rationale and
process are properly documented and technical risk management. Concept
integrity is most effectively assured by making one or at most two chief
designers responsible for the product architecture (Brooks 2010). Application
of this rule depends on the number of levels of architecture for the prod-
uct. One chief designer can design the architecture if there are a few levels.
262 Design Synthesis: Integrated Product and Manufacturing System Design
The other designers support the chief designer by designing parts of the
product within the architectural constraints created by the chief designer.
Several chief designers will be required if there are many levels of architec-
ture. Each chief designer will be responsible for a few levels and is account-
able to the next higher-level chief designer. Each chief designer will have his
or her own design team.
The chief designer should be the most experienced designer in the team
and have good interpersonal communication skills.
Chief Co-Designer
The chief co-designer is an assistant to the chief designer. The role reducesthe
technical risk should the chief designer leave or become incapacitated. The
co-designer must work closely with the chief designer and understand
thedesign concept and rationale underlying it. The co-designer will carry
Design Te ams
are
interlinked
Horizontally Vertically
Team
management
Design
as a phase
Chapter 3
Organisational
structure
Chapter 15
are linked to
execute
ensures
effective
performance
of
consists of
Project
management
Risk
management
Design
management
Chapter 17
using
Lightweight
team
structure
Heavyweight
team
structure
Autonomous
team
structure
Design
experience
Design
quality
Risks
Cost
Schedules
is a role in
Client
Critic
Chief
designer
Team
leader
Librarian
Inventor
Designer
Chief
Co-designer
is
accountable
for
is
accountable
for
manages
manages
manages
via
via
FIGURE 16.1
Concept map for Chapter 16.
263Organising People for Design
out studies for the chief designer to explore the design space and develop
alternative design solutions. One person will be the chief co-designer. The
chief co-designer should be an experienced designer and have good inter-
personal communication skills.
Designer
The chief designer designs the concept and embodiment architectures and
will also carry out detailed design if the project is small. On larger projects,
the chief designer will focus solely on architectural design and the detail
design will be performed by a team of designers. The designers design
the components and sub-systems within the architectural constraints. The
designers should be experienced in component and sub-system design.
Team Leader
The team leader is responsible for ensuring the design team nishes the
design on time and within budget, providing the resources needed to com-
plete the design phase activities, and freezing the design concept at various
stages of the project.
The team leader role is necessary because usually designers do not have
the discipline to manage schedules and budgets properly. The role allowsthe
chief designer to focus on architectural development by relieving him or her
of the project administrative and management tasks. The team leader must
be an effective project manager. The team leader will be in charge of the
design project, not the chief designer. In general, a person other than the
chief designer should ll this role. The chief designer can be the team leader
if he or she has good project management skills.
Client
The client role is a general term for all the stakeholders affected by the design,
including, but not limited to, the following:
Customer (person who pays for and uses the design)
Secondary users (people who are affected by customers’ use of the
product)
Manufacturer(s)
Sellers/distributors
Maintainers (people who will maintain the product)
Disposers (people responsible for disposing of the product when it is
no longer required by the user)
One of the authors designs his own shirts, but he is not a fashion designer.
His shirts are tailor-made by a company called CYC The Custom Shop.

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