Richard E. Walton
J. Richard Hackman
Groups pervade organizations and have long been recognized as significant in affecting both the quality of life of organization members and organizational productivity. We know of no scholar or manager who would argue that groups can safely be ignored in studying or leading an organization that has work to accomplish. Yet we perceive some changes in how groups are being used in contemporary organizations, changes that appear to be associated with some fundamental changes in how organizations are designed and managed.
There is a trend in many organizations away ...