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Designing Embedded Systems with PIC Microcontrollers, 2nd Edition by Tim Wilmshurst

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CHAPTER 10. Starting with serial
An essential activity within any microprocessor system is the movement of data, between say CPU and memory. Equally important is the transfer of data between subsystems, say computer and keyboard. Data is sent by ordering bits into words (often bytes, but not always) and then sending those words.
Broadly speaking, there are two ways of transferring the data. In parallel transfer, all the bits of the word are transmitted at the same time, each bit over its own connection. The alternative is to send each bit in turn, over a single connection. This is called serial communication. It is easy to see the first relative advantages. Parallel takes more wires and connections, but is faster. Serial needs fewer wires, ...

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