One industry after another has discovered that brand awareness, perceived quality, customer loyalty, and strong brand associations and personality are necessary to compete in the marketplace (Aaker & Joachimsthaler 2000: ix).
Today’s consumers have more product choice but less decision making time than ever before. Consequently, a brand that can help simplify decisions, reduce purchase risk, create and deliver expectations is invaluable (Keller 2003). The topic of product branding first appeared in the literature fifty years ago (see Gardner & Levy 1955). However, most of the work relating to brand theory and practise has only been published since 1991 (e.g. Aaker 1991, 1996; Aaker & Joachimsthaler ...