Key Definitions

  1. CALP: Acronym coined by Cummins (1979) that means cognitive academic language proficiency. It refers to skills in formal academic language learning (contrasted with informal social language learning). These include skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing about content-area material in academic situations where students are expected to use English as a tool for learning (Cummins, 1981, 2000, 2001, 2003). Problems arise in law school context, for example, when professors and administrators assume that students are proficient in second language (L2) academic writing when they demonstrate good social English orally or have met university requirements for TOEFL, the test of English as a foreign language.
  2. CALP SKILLS: ...

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