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Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Types of Contamination and Contamination Resources by Kashmiri L. Mittal, Rajiv Kohli

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Chapter 1

Metallic Contaminants on Surfaces and Their Impact

Rajiv Kohli,    The Aerospace Corporation, Houston, TX, United States

Abstract

Metallic contaminants are ubiquitous as discrete particles or in ionic form. Even in very low concentrations, they can adversely affect the performance of high-end devices. This chapter provides an overview of the sources and generation of metallic contaminants and discusses some of their impacts. Analytical techniques are briefly described that are available to detect and characterize metallic contaminants at the nanoscale.

Keywords

Contaminants; metallic contamination; diffusion; solubility; retrograde solubility; retrograde melting; defects; mitigation; cleanliness levels; impact; characterization techniques ...

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