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Digital Color Management: Encoding Solutions, 2nd Edition

Book Description

All successful imaging systems employ some form of color management for previewing, controlling and adjusting color throughout the image-production process. Today's increasingly complex systems pose challenging problems: they must support numerous devices and media having disparate color properties, and they also must provide for the interchange of images among dissimilar systems. In this book, the authors address and solve these problems using innovative methods of representing color in the digital domain.

The second edition of this popular book explains the capabilities and limitations of existing color management systems and provides comprehensive practical solutions for communicating color within and among imaging systems, from the simplest to the most complex. Beginning with the fundamentals of color and human color perception, the book progresses to in-depth analyses of the nature of color images, digital color encoding, color management systems and digital color interchange. Fully revised and updated, this second edition of Digital Color Management features new and expanded coverage including:

  • electronic displays and electronic imaging systems;

  • scene-based and appearance-based color encoding methods;

  • color management for digital cinema;

  • a Unified Paradigm—a comprehensive, integrated color-managed environment for the color-imaging industry;

  • four new chapters, two new appendices, and more than 80 new figures.

This book is an essential resource for engineers, programmers and imaging professionals designing and engineering color-imaging systems and for others simply looking to increase their understanding of the field. Scientists, researchers, advanced undergraduates and graduate students involved in imaging technology also will find this book of significant interest and usefulness.

Reviews for the first edition:

'The absence of unnecessary jargon, the impeccable writing style, the material depth leads only to one conclusion: If you buy one digital color book this year, buy this one.' W. David Schwaderer, Digital Camera Magazine

'It [Digital Color Management] fulfils the need among engineers and scientists for a comprehensive understanding of color management, imaging, media, viewing conditions, appearance and communication.' Arthur S. Diamond, Imaging News

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Series Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Introduction
  8. PART I: Fundamentals
    1. 1: Measuring Color
      1. Light sources
      2. Objects
      3. Color stimuli
      4. Human color vision
      5. Colorimetry
      6. CIE colorimetry
      7. Other color measurements
      8. Summary of key issues
    2. 2: Color-Imaging Systems
      1. Image capture
      2. Signal processing
      3. Image formation
      4. Complete color-imaging systems
      5. Summary of key issues
    3. 3: The Human Color-Imaging System
      1. Adaptation
      2. Colorimetry and human vision
      3. Summary of key issues
  9. PART II: The Nature of Color Images
    1. 4: Electronic Displays
      1. CRT monitors—basic technology
      2. CRT neutral characteristics
      3. CRT grayscale characteristics
      4. CRT color characteristics
      5. Other electronic display technologies
      6. Determination of display colorimetry
      7. Summary of key issues
    2. 5: Electronic Imaging Systems
      1. Monitor setup
      2. Camera grayscale characteristics
      3. Monitor color characteristics
      4. Results of colorimetric matching
      5. Viewing flare
      6. Perceptual factors
      7. Broadcast televisions signals
      8. An ideal electronic imaging system
      9. Color-encoding considerations
      10. Summary of key issues
    3. 6: Reflection Images
      1. Reflection media: general characteristics
      2. Reflection neutrals: colorimetric considerations
      3. Reflection neutrals: spectral characteristics
      4. Reflection neutrals: grayscale characteristics
      5. Reflection colors: colorimetric considerations
      6. Reflection colors: other characteristics
      7. Reflection system colorimetry
      8. Color-encoding considerations
      9. Summary of key issues
    4. 7: Projected Images
      1. Photographic slide films
      2. Photographic slide films: general characteristics
      3. Photographic slide films: neutral characteristics
      4. Photographic slide films: color balance
      5. Photographic slide films: grayscale characteristics
      6. Photographic slide films: color characteristics
      7. Photographic motion picture films
      8. Electronic motion picture projection
      9. Other modes of dark-surround image viewing
      10. Color-encoding considerations
      11. Summary of key issues
    5. 8: Photographic Negatives
      1. General characteristics
      2. Neutral characteristics
      3. Grayscale characteristics
      4. Color characteristics
      5. Color-encoding considerations
      6. Summary of key issues
  10. PART III: Digital Color Encoding
    1. 9: Encoding Concepts
      1. Multiple input/output color-imaging systems
      2. The concept of input compatibility
      3. Input compatibility and tags
      4. Input compatibility and device-independent color
      5. Creating input compatibility in color-imaging systems
      6. Summary of key issues
    2. 10: Densitometric Color Encoding
      1. Densitometric encoding and input compatibility
      2. A multiple negative-film system
      3. Discussion
      4. Summary of key issues
    3. 11: Colorimetric Color Encoding
      1. A case where colorimetric encoding works well
      2. A case where colorimetric encoding provides a partial solution
      3. A case where colorimetric encoding does not work
      4. Discussion
      5. Summary of key issues
    4. 12: Scene-Based Color Encoding
      1. Encoding approaches
      2. A new approach for the Photo CD system
      3. Making the scene-based approach work
      4. Practical considerations
      5. Degrees of input compatibility
      6. Discussion
      7. Summary of key issues
    5. 13: Color-Encoding Data Metrics
      1. System requirements
      2. Implementation
      3. Discussion
      4. Summary of key issues
    6. 14: Output Signal Processing
      1. Generating output images
      2. Colorimetric transformation
      3. Gamut adjustment
      4. Output code-value determination
      5. Summary of key issues
    7. 15: Myths and Misconceptons
      1. Myths of device-independent color
      2. Adaptation myths
      3. Scene-based color encoding and data metric myths
      4. A scanner myth
      5. Color-reproduction myths
      6. Discussion
  11. PART IV: A Unified Color-Management Environment
    1. 16: Color-Management Paradigms
      1. The ABC color-management paradigms
      2. Feature comparisons
      3. Discussion
      4. Summary of key issues
    2. 17: A Unified Paradigm: Basic Properties
      1. An ideal application
      2. From an ideal application to a unified paradigm
      3. Discussion
      4. Summary of key issues
    3. 18: A Unified Paradigm: Encoding Concepts
      1. Color-encoding requirements
      2. Representing color
      3. Encoding reference viewing conditions
      4. Color-encoding guidelines
      5. Other color-encoding concepts
      6. Discussion
      7. Summary of key issues
    4. 19: A Unified Paradigm: Encoding Transformations
      1. Viewing-flare transformations
      2. Luminance-level transformations
      3. Chromatic adaptation transformations
      4. Lateral-brightness adaptation transformations
      5. General-brightness adaptation transformations
      6. Encoding transformation comparisons
      7. Other color-encoding strategies
      8. Discussion
      9. Summary of key issues
    5. 20: A Unified Paradigm: Example Systems
      1. Example 1
      2. Example 2
      3. Example 3
      4. Example 4
      5. Example 5
      6. Example 6
      7. Example 7
      8. Example 8
      9. Example 9
      10. Example 10
      11. Example 11
      12. Example 12
      13. Discussion
      14. Summary of key issues
    6. 21: A Unified Paradigm: Complex Systems
      1. A comprehensive color-imaging system
      2. A digital cinema color-imaging system
      3. Summary of key issues
    7. 22: A Unified Paradigm: Color Interchange
      1. Interchange transforms
      2. Discussion
      3. Summary of key issues
    8. 23: A Unified Paradigm: Implementation
      1. General architecture and components
      2. Overall architecture
      3. Implementations of the Unified Paradigm
      4. Current implementations
      5. Discussion
      6. Summary of key issues
    9. 24: Closing Thoughts and Conclusions
  12. PART V: Appendices
    1. A: Colorimetry
    2. B: Densitometry
    3. C: Photographic Media
      1. Photographic negative films and print media
      2. Why photographic negative films are orange
      3. Photographic transparency films
    4. D: Adaptation
      1. General-Brightness Adaptation
      2. Lateral-brightness adaptation
      3. Observer chromatic adaptation
    5. E: Viewing Flare
      1. Effect of viewing flare on image grayscale
      2. Colorimetric effects
    6. F: Scene-Based Color Encoding Specifications
      1. Kodak PhotoYCC color interchange space
      2. RIMM RGB and ERIMM RGB color encoding specifications
    7. G: Transformations for Color Interchange
      1. A method for transforming PhotoYCC space values to example Unified Paradigm CES values
      2. A method for transforming example CES values to PhotoYCC space values
      3. A method for transforming PhotoYCC space values to YC b C r values
      4. A method for transforming PhotoYCC space values to Cineon system values
      5. A method for transforming example CES values to NIFRGB/sRGB code values
      6. A method for transforming PhotoYCC space values to NIFRGB/sRGB code values
    8. H: Color-Primary Conversions
      1. Matrix notation
      2. RGB to CIE XYZ
      3. Worked example
      4. CIE XYZ to RGB
      5. Conversions between sets of RGB primaries
      6. Worked example
      7. Color-matching functions for a set of primaries
    9. I: Mathematical Transforms
      1. One-dimensional lookup tables
      2. Normalized 3 × 3 matrices
      3. Unnormalized 3 × 3 matrices
      4. 3 × 4 matrices
      5. Polynomial equations
      6. 3-D LUTs
  13. Glossary
  14. Suggested Reading
  15. Index