1. The symbol | | means the absolute value or magnitude of the complex quantity contained within.
2. The symbol arg( ) means the phase angle of the complex quantity contained within the brackets.
3. The symbol Re[ ] means the “real part of” and Im[ ] means the “imaginary part of” the complex quantity contained within the brackets.
4. The natural logarithm is denoted by ln.
5. Logarithms to bases 2 and 10 are denoted by log2 and log10, respectively.
6. The use of an asterisk as superscript denotes complex conjugate; e.g., x* is the complex conjugate of x.
7. The symbol ⇌ indicates a Fourier-transform pair, e.g., g(t) ⇌ G(ƒ), where a lowercase letter denotes the time function and a corresponding uppercase letter denotes the frequency function.
8. The symbol F[ ] indicates the Fourier-transform operation on a time function enclosed within the brackets, e.g., F[g(t)] = G(ƒ).
The symbol F–1[ ] indicates the inverse Fourier-transform operation of a frequency function enclosed within the brackets, e.g., F–1[G(f)] = g(t).
9. The symbol ★ denotes convolution, e.g.,
10. In Chapter 10 on error-control coding, the symbol ⊕ is used in the figures, but when it comes to binary arithmetic, the modulo-2 addition is denoted by an ordinary plus sign throughout that chapter; the same statement applies to Appendix J on maximal-length codes.
11. The use ...